Guide: How to cite a Conference proceedings in New Solutions style

Guide: How to cite a Conference proceedings in New Solutions style

Cite A Conference proceedings in New Solutions style

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Use the following template to cite a conference proceedings using the New Solutions citation style. For help with other source types, like books, PDFs, or websites, check out our other guides. To have your reference list or bibliography automatically made for you, try our free citation generator.


Pink text = information that you will need to find from the source.
Black text = text required by the New Solutions style.

Reference list

Place this part in your bibliography or reference list at the end of your assignment.


[1] Author Initial.  Author Surname, 'Title', Publication Title (Year Published): Pages Used.


[1] M.  Daly, 'Personality may explain the association between cannabis use and neuropsychological impairment', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 110(11)  (2013): E979-E979, doi:10.1073/pnas.1218571110.

In-text citation

Place this part right after the quote or reference to the source in your assignment.




In a hierarchical regression analysis that adjusted for sex and childhood cognitive ability, cannabis use was positively associated with high levels of neuropsychological functioning at age 50 y (B = 0.054, SE = 0.015; t = 3.64, P < 0.001). This relationship was attenuated to nonsignificance when the analysis was adjusted for the “Big-5” personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability), as measured in adulthood using 50 items from the International Personality Item Pool ( [B = 0.018, SE = 0.015; t = 1.2, P = 0.24]. Post hoc analyses revealed that openness positively predicted cannabis use, an increase in neuropsychological functioning, and fully explained the cannabis–intelligence link. Thus, it appears that “open” individuals may tend to seek out illicit substances and to select into cognitively stimulating environments that improve neuropsychological functioning.

Crucially, these findings illustrate how by failing to include personality traits, which have been measured repeatedly in the Dunedin cohort (2), Meier et al. (1) may have identified a noncausal association between cannabis use and changes in cognitive functioning. Given that the current test described here was restricted by the limitations of the data, particularly in the assessment of cannabis use, it is imperative that the role of personality traits be addressed by Meier et al. (1). This is especially important given that policy and prevention campaigns may invest substantial resources into alleviating the proposed neurotoxic effects of cannabis use.

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